In rabbinic discourse, a «law given to Moses at Sinai» refers to a law that has no source in the written Torah and must therefore have been transmitted orally since the time of Moses. [3] However, these laws are considered by the Talmud to have the force and gravity of biblical law, as if they were explicitly written in the Torah. [4] The Ten Commandments are a summary of the requirements of a covenant (called the Old Covenant) given on Mount Sinai to the nascent nation of Israel. [ref. needed] The Old Covenant ended on the cross and is therefore not effective. [ref. needed] They reflect God`s eternal character and serve as a model of morality. [93] [13] Throughout P, the object presented to Moses is called testimony without mentioning the tablets (2. Moses 16:34, 25:16, 21, 22, 26:33–34, 27:21, 30:6, 36, 40:20; Leviticus 16:13; 24:3 ; Numbers 17:19, 25), while E and D refer everywhere to the tablets and never mention testimony. Only in three places does the traditional text refer to the «two tablets of testimony» (Exodus 31:18a; 32:15; 34:29), and all three occur precisely where P merged with E. In my opinion, P originally contained a continuous passage that began: «When he spoke to him on Mount Sinai, he bore his testimony to Moses.» In E`s account, immediately after Exodus 24:18b, E related a similar event: «Then he gave Moses two tablets, tablets of stone, which had been inscribed with the finger of God.» The publisher combined the two into one verse, Exodus 31:18.

P first proceeded immediately with «When Moses descended from Mount Sinai with a testimony in his hand»; The words «two tablets of» were used in this verse (2. Moses 34:29) was added by the publisher. In E, however, after Moses learned of the existence of the calf (Exodus 32:7-14), the story originally continued: «Then Moses turned and went down the mountain with the two tablets, tablets engraved on both surfaces.» Here (Exodus 32:15), the words «of testimony» have been added by the publisher. Thus, in the three passages cited, the expression «the two witness panels» was created by the publisher, who identified P`s statement with E`s tablets. The account J or Yahwistik may well be called «The Apparitions of YHWH on Mount Sinai.» Here, the events of Sinai are essentially visual, dealing mainly with the question of who is allowed to see the face of YHWH («the Lord») and under what conditions. This is where Mount Sinai is called. Rabbinic Judaism[13] claims that Moses presented the laws to the Jewish people and that the laws do not apply to Gentiles (including Christians), except for the seven laws of Noah, which (he teaches) apply to all people. The next morning, Moses receives the monument of the covenant, the two stone tablets prepared by God. The essence of the covenant, as expressed in the opening of the Decalogue (Exodus 20:3) and at the beginning and end of the covenant discourse (Exodus 20:20; 23:32), is the prohibition of the other gods—in other words, the requirement of absolute fidelity to the covenant fiefdom. Pulling the calf is therefore the archetypal act of the infidelity of the covenant (Exodus 32:4).

Moses` reaction, the destruction of the covenant document (Exodus 32:19), indicates its abrogation and creates the need to restore or abandon it forever. The new tablets on which God describes the Ten Words provide dissolution (2. Moses 34:1, 4, 28). The story ends with their presentation before Moses (Exodus 34:28). It can be difficult for a Christian to draw a point from a verse in the book of Exodus, or especially Leviticus, and then suggest how that lesson should be applied today. Anyone who tries to do this should be prepared for the return: «Sure, but the Bible also allows slavery and says we can`t eat bacon or shrimp! Moreover, I don`t think God really cares if my clothes are a cotton-polyester mixture» (Exodus 21:2–11; Lev 11:7, 12; or 19.19). Since this also happens in Christian circles, we should not be surprised if we have difficulty applying the Bible to the theme of work in the public space. How are we supposed to know what applies today and what does not apply? How can we avoid accusations of inconsistency in our dealings with the Bible? More importantly, how do we allow God`s Word to truly transform us in all areas of life? The variety of laws of Exodus and the Pentateuch presents a kind of challenge. Another comes from the variety of ways Christians understand and apply the Torah and Old Testament in relation to Christ and the New Testament. Nevertheless, the issue of Torah is crucial in Christianity and needs to be addressed so that we can learn something about what this part of the Bible says about our work.

The next short treatment should be useful without being too tight. On the mountain, God gave him a physical version of the Ten Commandments engraved on two stone tablets. He also explained the details of Jewish law and religion. These included how sacrifices were to be offered, who was to be a priest, and how to do the tabernacle and ark of the covenant.