What are the cultural values that underpin the rule of law? The variables and cultural data we will use in our analysis of a sample of 83 countries come from the founding of the World Values Survey (WVS), the empirical support for postmodernization theory. Formal or legal recognition of rights does not guarantee that they are respected and regulated in practice. This depends on «institutional practices in dealing with legal norms» (Welzel and Alexander, 2008, p. 9). The «rule of law» is the situation in which these rules are applied. While not an exclusive feature of democracy, it is important to realize the nominal rights it recognizes. «An effective democracy must be based on the rule of law» (Inglehart & Welzel, 2005, p. 174). Inglehart`s theory defines a two-dimensional value structure.

Societies differ in their position according to one dimension whose polar opposites are the values of survival versus those of self-expression or emancipation, and another in which traditional values are opposed to rational and secular values (Inglehart and Baker, 2000; Inglehart and Welzel, 2005; Inglehart, 1997; Jorge, 2010). Value structures in society and individuals are equivalent or «isomorphic» (Dobewall and Rudnev, 2014). The dimensions of autonomy versus immersion and egalitarianism versus hierarchy overlap with those of self-expression versus survival (Schwartz, 2009, 2006). Moreover, egalitarianism in relation to hierarchy has aspects in common with rational-secular values in relation to the traditional values of the post-modernization perspective. The culture of legality is a set of values, norms, perceptions and attitudes that the individual has towards the laws and the institutions that execute them. Since it indicates the level of knowledge that citizens have of the standards in force, it is a fundamental component of the stability of the social system. At the other pole, where survival is uncertain, economic and physical security is paramount. Diversity and cultural change are seen as threats, as outsiders, as dangerous invaders who come to take our livelihoods. People cling to absolute standards that give predictability to an uncertain world. This leads to intolerance towards «other» groups, an emphasis on traditional gender roles, and an authoritarian political worldview. The culture of legality of a particular society «is the set of beliefs, values, norms and actions that encourage the population to believe in the rule of law, to defend it and not to tolerate illegality» [1]. It serves as a criterion for assessing the degree of compliance and compliance with the applicable rules by its applicants and recipients.

Figure 2 shows the position occupied in the area of the seven main orientations by the specific values of the SVS, which have a common meaning in different societies. To foster a culture of legality, it is important to start from these principles: Licht, A.N., Goldschmidt, C. & Schwartz, S.H. (2007): «Culture rules: The foundations of the rule of law and other norms of governance», Journal of Comparative Economics 35, pp. 659-68. It is transcendental that you know who our authorities are in the exercise of justice and what mechanisms they use to execute it. So far, we have examined the concept of the rule of law and the results of empirical research on its political and economic causes and effects. In examining the main reasons put forward to explain the extent of illegality in Argentina and Latin America, the question remains what role political culture, in particular values, social norms and group interests, plays. Schwartz recalls that some authors have described Latin American culture as «collectivist.» Here we see that, compared to Western Europe, it emphasizes less intellectual autonomy and more hierarchy and immersion in the group.

But if we compare it to Africa, the Middle East and South Asia, the opposite is true. But Schwartz`s theory of human values, despite its various conceptual apparatuses, shows important convergences with those developed by Inglehart – and later by Welzel – and has already been applied to the study of the rule of law. They help us to deepen our investigation and show the robustness of the results. The culture of legality is a set of values, norms, perceptions and attitudes that the individual has towards the laws and the institutions that execute them. Since it indicates the level of knowledge that citizens have of the standards in force, it is a fundamental component of the stability of the social system. According to Godson[1], «a culture of legality implies that the dominant culture or mentality in society sympathizes with the rule of law». It is a mechanism of individual self-regulation and social regulation that requires citizens to achieve a certain harmony between respect for the law, moral beliefs and cultural traditions and conventions. [ref.

needed] Another way to define it is the shared belief that every human being has an «individual responsibility» to contribute to the building and preservation of a society based on the rule of law. [ref. needed] Schwartz proposes multidimensional and different value structures in society and the individual. Both theories converge in the nature of values that are congruent with democracy and function as intermediate variables between economic development and democratization (Schwartz, 2006; Jorge, 2015). The culture of legality is an imperative of the rule of law. [2] In a state governed by the rule of law, legal norms: In society as a whole, Schwartz distinguishes seven orientations of cultural values, which form three dimensions (Figure 1).